Compare-ObjectIs: No more weird Foreach… -Contains code

Yesterday, I was again faced with the task of using PowerShell to determine whether one array contained any of the values in another array. Specifically, I had an array of AD group Distinguished Names (DN) and needed to determine if users were members of any of these groups (an LDAP filter would probably be easier, but I was already invested in solving this). Typically, I would handle this with something of a foreach loop: for each user, loop through each of their group memberships and see if the group array contains their group string. This always feels terribly inefficient, so I wanted to find a cleaner way of handling these types of comparisons.

Looking around online, I realized PowerShell has a Compare-Object cmdlet, which sounded promising. It works by accepting a -ReferenceObject and -DifferenceObject, and comparing which values are the same or different between the two. Now, this cmdlet is almost helpful, but really works better for someone interacting with the shell, rather than a script. The output looks something like this:

Screen Shot 2016-05-19 at 7.43.10 AM

The “SideIndicator” tells us which object/array (the reference, or the difference object) has a different value. In this example, the second array contains “orange,” but the first array does not. Conversely, the  first array contains “apple,” but the second does not. Again, handy if you are in the shell, but how do you use this in a script. Well, here is the short of what I came up with:

compare-object $_.MemberOf $includeGroups -includeequal -excludedifferent

You might first notice that there are no “-ReferenceObject” or “-DifferenceObject” parameter names spelled out above. That is because, as with all PowerShell cmdlets, if you specify parameters in the right order, you can skip those names. So, in this case, $_.MemberOf is the reference object and $includeGroups is the difference object. The next two switches are very important for this to work. “-includeequal” tells the cmdlet to return the items that match between the two objects and “-excludedifferent” prevents it from returning the objects that are different. This is because, for this comparison, we really only care about the items that match across arrays.

Continuing the fruit example above, here is what we see:

Screen Shot 2016-05-19 at 7.52.05 AM

This “==” tells us that “pear” and “banana” exist in both arrays. Since we exclude differences, if there are no matches this cmdlet will return $null. That means we can do something like this:


if ( compare-object $MemberOf $includeGroups -includeequal -excludedifferent ) {

  #Do something

}

Or…

... | Where { compare-object $_.MemberOf $includeGroups -includeequal -excludedifferent }

Of course, format it however you would like and surround with parenthesis when using multiple conditions. I feel a little silly that this cmdlet has been there since PowerShell version 3, but I am at least satisfied that I no longer need to employ cumbersome foreach loops in these situations.

 

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